Stow red rough lemon

Citrus jambhiri Lush. RUTACEAE

CRC 3185
PI 539261


Received as budwood from Stow Ranch, Goleta, CA, 1959.


Presumably a from branch sport. Located in the 1st row on east side of variety block- 1st tree on north end of row. Orange peel, orange flesh.--WPB

Rootstocks of accession

Carrizo citrange C-35 citrange

Season of ripeness at Riverside

October to November

Notes and observations

This accession had seedling yellows which was removed by thermotherapy (Thermo 1404-26)--EMN 1986.

1/14/1988, EMN: "Red" is a misnomer- rind and flesh are orange. Internal cross section are similar to Rangpur in texture and color.

Description from The Citrus Industry Vol. 1 (1967)

"(Jamberi, Jatti Khatti, Mazoe Lemon, Citronelle)

Fruit medium in size, of highly variable form but usually oblate to elliptic-oblong; commonly with irregularly furrowed or lobed basal collar or neck; usually with broad apical nipple surrounded by a deep irregular areolar furrow.  Rind medium-thick; surface typically deeply pitted, and rough or bumpy, sometimes ribbed; easily separable; color lemon-yellow to brownish-orange.  Segments about 10; axis large and hollow.  Flesh color light yellow to pale orange; medium juicy; flavor moderately acid.  Seeds numerous, small, highly polyembryonic, and cotyledons faintly green.  Some crop throughout the year but mainly in winter.

Tree vigorous and large, upright-spreading, with numerous small thorns; leaves medium-small, blunt-pointed, and light green.  Flowers small and mandarin-like, purple-tinged, and produced more or less throughout year, but mainly in spring and late summer.  New shoot growth faintly purple-tinted.  Sensitivity to cold about like that of true lemons.

This species exhibits a remarkable range of variation in fruit characters, and in India, where it is native, four relatively distinct types are recognized, one of which is similar to the form obtained from Italy known as C. volckameriana (for description see Chapot, 1965a).  There is also a sweet-fleshed form.

Presumably native to northeastern India, where it still grows wild, the rough lemon seems to have been taken to southeast Africa by the Portuguese toward the end of the fifteenth or early sixteenth century and thence to Europe.  It doubtless reached the New World not long thereafter.

Although used to some extent as a lemon substitute, for which it is not very suitable, the rough lemon is highly important as a rootstock in many parts of the world—notably India, South Africa, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, and Florida.  In the last two mentioned countries, selections have recently been named—Estes and Milam—which exhibit resistance to the burrowing nematode.

While resemblances to the lemon are fairly obvious, the differences are greater, and many of its characters are clearly those of the Rangpur or mandarin."


Not commercially available in California.


USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network page for Stow red rough lemon



Stow red rough lemon crc3185002
Stow red rough lemon crc3185005
Stow red rough lemon crc3185006
Stow red rough lemon crc3185003_000
Stow red rough lemon crc3185007
Photos by David Karp and Toni Siebert, CVC.
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