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Imperial mandarin

Citrus reticulata Blanco RUTACEAE

CRC 4160

PI 658355

VI 684

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Photos by Toni Siebert, CVC. Photo rights.

 

Source: Received as budwood from New South Wales, Australia, 2006.

 

Parentage/origins: A chance hybrid selected about 1890. It is believed to be a chance hybrid of 'Mediterranean' or 'Willowleaf' and another mandarin, possibly 'Emperor'.

 

Rootstocks of accession: Carrizo citrange, C-35 citrange

 

Season of ripeness at Riverside: October to December

 

Notes and observations:

12/2006, RRK: 'Imperial' is one of Australia's most important and long-established mandarin selections. It is widely planted throughout existing mandarin-growing regions, with about 361,000 bearing and 26,000 non-bearing trees in 1999, mostly in Queensland.

'Imperial' is an extremely early maturing mandarin, equivalent in this regard to 'Owari' satsuma. Brix:acid ration reaches 7:1 around mid-March in the earliest regions of Australia, with later regions reaching this ratio in early June. 'Imperial' can be harvested up to July or August, depending upon the region. Fruit quality is considered good with a good balance or sugar and acid and good internal color. The skin is thin and soft, and although adherent, it peels easily. Juice levels are 35 % and greater and fruit are firm when peeled. Granulation is sometimes a problem because of the low juice content. There are usually 4 or less seeds per fruit in both solid and mixed plantings. The fruit is medium sized (or small in heavy crop years). The external color is yellow orange, but is more intense in regions where fall temperatures are cool. Fruit generally must be clipped from the tree rather than plucked. De-greening is necessary when fruit are harvested early and the post-harvest life is short at 2 - 4 weeks. 'Imperial' responds poorly to heat and cold treatments for pest disinfestation, which makes it unsuitable for export (from Australia).

'Imperial' performs adequately on a variety of rootstocks, although incompatibilities have sometimes been noted on 'Carrizo' and 'Troyer'. 'Cleopatra' produces high quality fruit. 'Cleopatra' and 'Troyer' are the most commonly used rootstocks in Queensland, whereas 'Carrizo' is more popular in southern areas. There is a tendency towards alternate bearing, which sometimes is managed by thinning. The tree's habit is vigorous and upright. Cross-pollinators may hep with set, yield, and size.

A fact sheet is available from Citrus Australia Limited.

 

Description from The Citrus Industry Vol. 1 (1967):

"Fruit medium-small to medium, oblate to broadly obovate; short basal neck or low collar; apex depressed.  Rind very thin, leathery, smooth and glossy, with slight adherence but no puffing until mature; color yellowish to pale orange at maturity.  Segments 9 to 11, easily separable; axis medium and hollow.  Flavor pleasantly subacid with attractive aroma.  Comparatively few seeds.  Very early in maturity (about like Wase satsuma).  Loses quality if left on tree after maturity.
      Tree vigorous, medium in size, upright, virtually thornless; leaves long, slender, and taper-pointed.  Some tendency to alternate bearing.
      Imperial originated about 1890 at Emu Plains, some thirty miles west of Sydney, New South Wales, and is believed to be a chance hybrid of Mediterranean or Willowleaf, to which it bears considerable resemblance, and some other mandarin—possibly Emperor.  Because of its early maturity, attractive appearance, and pleasant flavor, it commands a premium in the markets."
 

Availability: Commercially available in California through the Citrus Clonal Protection Program.

 

USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network page for Imperial mandarin

 

Bibliography:

Saunt, 2000, 'Citrus Varieties of the World', pp 65-66

CVC Fruit Quality Date for Imperial mandarin:

 

CULTIVAR LOCATION DATE JULIAN DATE ROOT AGE SSC1 (%) SSC2 (%) Mean SSC tit1 (V/ml) tit2 (V/ml) Mean tit Citric acid (%) SSC/TA # FRUIT LENGTH  AVG. LENGTH  WIDTH AVG. WIDTH L/W WEIGHT AVG. WT. COLOR TEXTURE RIND SEEDS AVG. SEEDS
INTERIOR 
JUICE WT.  % JUICE
Imperial Lindcove 10/12/2012 286 CZO 5 6.50 6.40 6.45 6.93 7.28 7.11 1.73 3.75 10 59.00 5.90 56.80 5.68 1.04 873.30 87.33 3.00 3.30 17.00 54.00 5.40
10 LT OR
262.60 30.07
Imperial Lindcove 10/12/2012 286 CZO 5 6.70 6.80 6.75 6.57 6.76 6.66 1.62 4.13 10 47.70 4.77 51.50 5.15 0.93 647.70 64.77 3.00 3.00 18.00 101.00 10.10
10 MED OR
277.90 42.91
Imperial Riverside 10/15/2012 289 CZO 5 7.40 7.40 7.40 5.04 5.01 5.03 1.22 6.06 10 41.70 4.17 48.10 4.81 0.87 516.70 51.67 3.00 2.00 19.00 136.00 13.60
10 MED OR
192.30 37.22
Imperial Riverside 10/15/2012 289 C-35 5 7.70 7.70 7.70 6.61 6.22 6.42 1.56 4.94 10 45.00 4.50 53.80 5.38 0.84 707.10 70.71 3.00 2.50 13.00 121.00 12.10
10 MED OR
289.90 41.00
Imperial Lindcove 10/17/2011 290 CZO 4 10.50 10.50 10.50 8.71 8.58 8.65 2.08 5.06 10 45.90 4.59 50.00 5.00 0.92 585.90 58.59 4.00 2.00 16.00 124.00 12.40
10 MED OR
250.80 42.81
Imperial Lindcove 10/17/2011 290 CZO 4 10.80 10.80 10.80 7.12 7.36 7.24 1.74 6.22 10 49.70 4.97 57.20 5.72 0.87 803.20 80.32 4.00 3.00 29.00 118.00 11.80
10 MED OR
326.20 40.61
Imperial Lindcove 10/17/2010 290 CZO 4 11.20 11.20 11.20 5.47 5.37 5.42 1.30 8.64 10 45.20 4.52 53.00 5.30 0.85 663.30 66.33 4.00 1.00 31.00 104.00 10.40
7 MED OR, 3 LT OR
251.30 37.89
Imperial Lindcove 10/17/2010 290 CZO 4 10.70 10.70 10.70 5.29 5.24 5.26 1.26 8.48 10 44.50 4.45 51.60 5.16 0.86 637.00 63.70 4.00 1.00 25.00 77.00 7.70
10 MED OR
260.60 40.91
Imperial Riverside 10/17/2010 290 CZO 3 9.80 9.70 9.75 5.62 5.54 5.58 1.34 7.30 10 45.00 4.50 50.40 5.04 0.89 590.10 59.01 3.20 1.50 35.00 110.00 11.00
10 LT OR
254.20 43.08
Imperial Lindcove 10/18/2013 291 CZO 6 9.7 9.7 9.70 6.632 6.876 6.754 1.63 5.96 10 45.90 4.59 50.90 5.09 0.90 611.90 61.19 3.00 2.00 20.00 65.00 6.50
10 MED OR
231.30 37.80
Imperial Lindcove 10/18/2013 291 CZO 6 9.5 9.5 9.50 5.348 5.606 5.477 1.32 7.20 10 58.70 5.87 60.40 6.04 0.97 1005.80 100.58 4.00 3.00 19.00 65.00 6.50
10 MED OR
297.80 29.61
Imperial Lindcove 10/19/2009 292 CZO 3 9.20 9.20 9.20 4.16 4.08 4.12 0.99 9.25 10 52.30 5.23 60.20 6.02 0.87 975.50 97.55 4.50 1.50 33.00 117.00 11.70
10 MED OR
361.30 37.04
Imperial Riverside 10/19/2008 293 CZO 2 9.40 9.40 9.40 6.09 6.08 6.08 1.47 6.41 5 21.80 4.36 25.30 5.06 0.86 294.10 58.82 3.40 1.00 10.00 23.00 4.60
5 LT OR
104.20 35.43
Imperial Riverside 11/5/2012 310 CZO 5 8.00 8.00 8.00 3.86 3.81 3.84 0.93 8.60 10 43.60 4.36 50.60 5.06 0.86 608.00 60.80 5.00 2.00 22.00 98.00 9.80
10 MED OR
210.20 34.57
Imperial Riverside 11/5/2012 310 C-35 5 8.10 8.00 8.05 4.19 4.02 4.11 1.00 8.13 10 45.70 4.57 57.60 5.76 0.79 832.70 83.27 5.20 2.50 12.00 96.00 9.60
10 MED OR
431.90 51.87
Imperial Lindcove 11/5/2012 310 CZO 5 7.80 7.90 7.85 5.05 5.07 5.06 1.23 6.36 10 59.10 5.91 57.20 5.72 1.03 829.20 82.92 3.00 3.00 14.00 74.00 7.40
10 MED OR
349.60 42.16
Imperial Lindcove 11/7/2010 311 CZO 4 10.90 10.90 10.90 4.34 4.31 4.33 1.04 10.52 10 48.80 4.88 60.10 6.01 0.81 865.90 86.59 5.40 1.50 33.00 110.00 11.00
10 MED OR
362.50 41.86
Imperial Lindcove 11/7/2010 311 CZO 4 10.30 10.30 10.30 3.77 3.78 3.78 0.91 11.35 10 47.30 4.73 59.40 5.94 0.80 854.60 85.46 5.10 1.50 33.00 93.00 9.30
10 MED OR
341.60 39.97
Imperial Riverside 11/7/2010 311 CZO 3 10.80 10.70 10.75 3.63 3.73 3.68 0.88 12.25 10 46.20 9.24 55.00 11.00 0.84 724.30 144.86 8.00 2.00 35.00 114.00 22.80
10 MED OR
279.60 38.60
Imperial Riverside 11/9/2009 313 CZO 2 9.50 9.60 9.55 3.80 4.02 3.91 0.94 10.08 5 23.00 4.60 27.30 5.46 0.84 370.00 74.00 4.50 2.00 16.00 27.00 5.40
5 MED OR
149.10 40.30
Imperial Lindcove 11/10/2011 314 CZO 4 10.50 10.40 10.45 6.59 6.66 6.63 1.59 6.60 10 45.40 4.54 55.90 5.59 0.81 708.50 70.85 5.30 1.50 19.00 98.00 9.80
10 MED OR
266.30 37.59
Imperial Lindcove 11/10/2011 314 CZO 4 11.20 11.10 11.15 5.34 5.45 5.39 1.29 8.68 10 50.40 5.04 62.30 6.23 0.81 963.00 96.30 6.10 2.00 32.00 101.00 10.10
10 MED OR
337.20 35.02
Imperial Lindcove 11/11/2009 315 CZO 3 9.90 9.90 9.90 3.24 3.18 3.21 0.77 12.82 10 53.50 5.35 66.60 6.66 0.80 1162.80 116.28 6.50 1.50 37.00 100.00 10.00
10 MED OR
415.10 35.70
Imperial Lindcove 11/11/2009 315 CZO 3 9.30 9.40 9.35 3.37 3.23 3.30 0.80 11.68 10 60.90 6.09 69.80 6.98 0.87 1387.90 138.79 5.90 2.00 43.00 120.00 12.00
10 MED OR
415.40 29.93
Imperial Lindcove 11/11/2013 315 CZO 6 10.6 10.6 10.60 4.766 4.870 4.818 1.16 9.17 10 47.00 4.70 54.00 5.40 0.87 733.40 73.34 5.00 2.00 20.00 51.00 5.10
10 MED OR
303.20 41.34
Imperial Lindcove 11/11/2013 315 CZO 6 10.7 10.8 10.75 4.014 3.958 3.986 0.96 11.20 10 61.20 6.12 67.90 6.79 0.90 1291.60 129.16 5.00 5.00 22.00 58.00 5.80
10 MED OR
323.10 25.02
Imperial Riverside 12/3/2012 338 CZO 5 9.30 9.30 9.30 3.94 4.07 4.01 0.97 9.63 10 42.30 4.23 52.00 5.20 0.81 608.00 60.80 11.00 3.00 13.00 62.00 6.20
10 MED OR
231.70 38.11
Imperial Riverside 12/3/2012 338 C-35 5 8.70 8.60 8.65 3.62 3.73 3.68 0.89 9.79 10 47.50 4.75 57.60 5.76 0.82 822.40 82.24 10.00 3.00 14.00 45.00 4.50
10 MED OR
397.10 48.29
Imperial Riverside 12/6/2010 340 CZO 3 10.90 10.90 10.90 3.90 4.03 3.96 0.95 11.47 10 47.40 4.74 57.90 5.79 0.82 821.90 82.19 8.00 1.50 40.00 103.00 10.30
10 MED OR
282.00 34.31
Imperial Riverside 12/8/2009 342 CZO 2 11.70 11.60 11.65 3.40 3.52 3.46 0.83 14.16 10 48.30 4.83 58.30 5.83 0.83 846.20 84.62 8.00 2.00 33.00 62.00 6.20
10 MED OR
285.40 33.73
Imperial Lindcove 12/9/2011 343 CZO 4 11.00 11.10 11.05 5.30 5.10 5.20 1.24 8.84 10 43.40 4.34 57.00 5.70 0.76 712.10 71.21 11.00 2.00 35.00 88.00 8.80
10 MED OR
203.30 28.55
Imperial Lindcove 12/9/2011 343 CZO 4 11.20 11.10 11.15 4.05 3.90 3.98 0.95 11.77 10 48.90 4.89 62.00 6.20 0.79 939.40 93.94 11.00 2.00 40.00 95.00 9.50
10 MED OR
254.80 27.12
Imperial Lindcove 12/9/2010 343 CZO 4 11.60 11.50 11.55 3.21 3.21 3.21 0.77 15.11 10 48.20 4.82 54.80 5.48 0.88 822.90 82.29 10.00 2.00 32.00 77.00 7.70
5 MED OR
246.20 29.92
Imperial Lindcove 12/9/2010 343 CZO 4 10.70 10.70 10.70 2.85 2.93 2.89 0.69 15.43 10 51.20 5.12 61.90 6.19 0.83 933.80 93.38 9.80 2.00 33.00 82.00 8.20
10 MED OR
235.40 25.21
Imperial Lindcove 12/13/2013 347 CZO 6 11.5 11.5 11.50 3.370 3.264 3.317 0.79 14.50 10 65.30 6.53 72.20 7.22 0.90 1416.40 141.64 12.00 3.00 39.00 61.00 6.10
10 MED OR
219.00 15.46
Imperial Lindcove 12/14/2009 348 CZO 3 11.80 11.80 11.80 3.06 3.15 3.11 0.74 15.92 5 29.00 5.80 37.00 7.40 0.78 702.60 140.52 10.00 3.00 17.00 47.00 9.40
5 MED OR
169.40 24.11
Imperial Lindcove 12/14/2009 348 CZO 3 11.30 11.30 11.30 3.07 3.08 3.08 0.74 15.35 10 55.50 5.55 68.80 6.88 0.81 1257.50 125.75 9.00 2.50 37.00 64.00 6.40
10 MED OR
299.80 23.84
Imperial Lindcove 12/14/2012 349 CZO 5 8.70 8.70 8.70 4.06 3.97 4.01 0.97 8.97 10 46.80 4.68 59.70 5.97 0.78 804.60 80.46 11.00 2.00 33.00 87.60 8.76
10 MED OR
237.70 29.54

 

 



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